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The clove oil herbal monograph selects and summarises scientific studies and textbooks regarding efficacy, dosage and safety supporting the therapeutic uses of clove oil. The botanical definition of the herbal drug is “clove oil, distilled from the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum”. Studies with its main characteristic constituents, eugenol and β-caryophyllene, are included. In dental healthcare, clove oil is used as a local anaesthetic and as a mouth wash. Clove oil administration addresses posology; its duration of use; contra-indications; special warnings; special precautions for use; interactions with other medicinal products; other forms of interaction; in pregnancy and lactation; its effects on ability to drive; undesirable effects; overdose. In vitro experiments with clove oil demonstrate: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties and induction of apoptosis. In vivo experiments with animals demonstrate its local anaesthetic, anti-infectious, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and insect-repellent properties. Pharmacological studies in humans concern dental healthcare and insect repellent activities. A randomized controlled clinical study with clove oil cream demonstrated its use as a topical anaesthetic in patients with chronic anal fissure. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered clove oil or eugenol, such as absorption, metabolism and elimination, were assessed in animals and humans. Preclinical safety data for clove oil and eugenol were assessed in toxicity studies. Safety data were assessed in human studies. Only mild skin irritations were reported. The selection of literature cited in the monograph is aimed at bringing together relevant information about the possible physiological roles of clove oil and its major constituents. Examples are given below.
- Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MERR.et PERRY
- Caryophylli aetheroleum
- Clove Oil
- Dental use as local anaesthetic; Mouthwash; Disinfectant;