Clove Oil – ESCOP Herbal Monograph 2014

Caryophylli aetheroleum
Clove Oil
Published 2014
Price:   €20
Format: PDF; Instant Download









The clove oil herbal monograph selects and summarises scientific studies and textbooks regarding  efficacy, dosage and safety supporting the therapeutic uses of clove oil.

The definition of the herbal drug is “clove oil, distilled from the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum”.

Studies with its main characteristic  constituents, eugenol and β-caryophyllene, are included. In dental healthcare, clove oil is used as a local anaesthetic and as a mouth wash.

Clove oil administration addresses posology; its duration of use; contra-indications; special warnings; special precautions for use; interactions with other medicinal products; other forms of interaction; in pregnancy and lactation; its effects on ability to drive;  undesirable effects; overdose.

In vitro experiments with clove oil demonstrate: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and  anti-inflammatory properties and induction of apoptosis.

In vivo experiments with animals demonstrate its local anaesthetic, anti-infectious, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and  insect-repellent properties.

Pharmacological studies in humans concern dental healthcare and insect repellent activities.

A randomized controlled clinical study with clove oil cream demonstrated its use as a topical anaesthetic in patients with chronic anal fissure.

Pharmacokinetics of orally administered clove oil or eugenol, such as absorption, metabolism and elimination, were assessed in animals and humans.

Preclinical safety data for clove oil and eugenol were assessed in toxicity studies.

Safety data were assessed in human studies. Only mild skin irritations were reported.

The selection of literature cited in the monograph is aimed at bringing together relevant information about the possible physiological roles of clove oil and its major constituents. Examples are given below.


  • Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry
  • Caryophylli aetheroleum
  • Clove Oil
  • Dental use as local anaesthetic; Mouthwash; Disinfectant;


– Abdel-Wahhab MA, Aly SE. Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis. J Appl Toxicol 2005;25:218-23.
– Ahmad N, Alam MK, Shehbaz A, Khan A, Mannan A, Hakim SR, Bisht D, Owais M. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil and its potential in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. J Drug Target 2005;13:555-61.
– Baser K, Husnu Can, Buchbauer G, editors. In: Handbook of essential oils. Science, technology and applications. CRC Press, 2009.
– Beg AZ; Ahmad I. In vitro fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum World J Mıcrobıol Bıotechnol 2002;18:313-5.
– Carrasco FR, Schmidt G, Romero AL, Sartoretto JL, Caparroz-Assef SM, Bersani-Amado CA, Cuman RK. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;61:961-7.
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