Grindelia – ESCOP Herbal Monograph 2015

GrindeliaGrindeliae herba

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The herbal monograph selects and summarises scientific studies and textbooks regarding efficacy, dosage and  safety to support the therapeutic uses of grindelia.

This herbal drug by definition consists of the dried flowering tops of Grindelia robusta Nutt., Grindelia squarrosa Dunal, Grindelia humilis Hook. et Arn. or Grindelia camporum Greene.

Studies with its main characteristic constituents: a resin consisting of diterpenic acids, various grindelic acids and borneol, are included.

The therapeutic indications are productive cough and catarrh of the upper respiratory tract.

Administration of grindelia addresses: posology; its duration of use; contra-indications; special warnings; special precautions for use; interactions with other medicinal products; other forms of interaction; in pregnancy and lactation; its effects on ability to drive;  undesirable effects; overdose.

In vitro experiments with grindelia demonstrate antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties.

In vivo experiments in animals demonstrate anti-inflammatory and expectorant activities.

Clinical data suggest its topical use against pruritis in patients with dermatitis.

Preclinical safety data were assessed in toxicity studies. No toxic effects were apparent in rats after oral administration of grindelia.

The selection of literature cited in the monograph is aimed at bringing together relevant examples of the possible physiological roles of grindelia and its major constituents. Examples are given below.


  • Grindelia robusta Nutt.; Grindelia squarrosa Duna; Grindelia humilis Hook. et Arn.; Grindelia camporum Greene
  • Grindeliae herba
  • Grindelia
  • Productive cough; catarrh of the upper respiratory tract


– Boyd EM, Palmer ME. The effect of Quillaia, Senega, Squill, Grindelia, Sanguinaria, Chionanthus and Dioscorea upon the output of respiratory tract fluid. Acta Pharmacol 1946;2:235-46.
– El-Shamy AM, El-Hawary SS, El-Shabrawy AO, El-Hefnawy HM, Glasl H. Essential oil composition of three Grindelia species. J Essent Oil Res 2000;12:631-4.
– Fraternale D, Giamperi L, Bucchini A, Ricci D. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Grindelia robusta from Central Italy. Fitoterapia 2007, 78(6):443-445
– Gehrmann B, Melzig MF. Grindeliakraut. Antiinflammtorisches Potenzial einer (fast) vergessenen Droge. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 2002;142:5633-7.
– Krenn L, Wollenweber E, Steyrleuthner K, Görick C, Melzig MF. Contribution of methylated exudate flavonoids to the anti-inflammatory activity of Grindelia robusta. Fitoterapia 2009, 80(5):267-269
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