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The herbal monograph selects and summarises scientific studies and textbooks regarding efficacy, dosage and safety to support the therapeutic uses of java tea. The botanical definition of the herbal drug is the fragmented, dried leaves and tops of stems of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (O. aristatus Miq.; O. spicatus Bak.) Studies with its main characteristic constituents lipophilic flavones, flavonol glycosides, caffeic acid derivatives, di- and triterpenes are included. The therapeutic indication is irrigation of the urinary tract, especially in cases of inflammation and renal gravel, and as an adjuvant in the treatment of bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Administration of java tea addresses: dosage; its duration of use; contra-indications; special warnings; special precautions for use; interactions with other medicinal products; other forms of interaction; in pregnancy and lactation; its effects on ability to drive; undesirable effects; overdose. In vitro experiments with java tea demonstrate antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. In vivo experiments demonstrate diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hepato-protective activities. Pharmacological studies in humans concern its diuretic activity. Controlled clinical studies with java tea demonstrated its use in patients with nephrolithiasis. Preclinical safety data for an extract of java tea were assessed in acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. Safety data were assessed in human studies. Minor adverse effects were reported in a clinical study. The selection of literature cited in the monograph is aimed at bringing together relevant information about the possible physiological roles of java tea and its major constituents. Examples are given below.
- Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.; Orthosiphon aristatus Miq.; Orthosiphon spicatus Bak
- Orthosiphonis folium
- Java Tea
- Kidney stones; Urinary stones; Bacterial infections of the urinary tract