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The herbal monograph selects and summarises scientific studies and textbooks regarding efficacy, dosage and safety to support the therapeutic uses of myrrh.
This herbal drug by definition consists of a gum-resin, hardened in air, obtained by incision or produced by spontaneous exudation from the stem and branches of Commiphora molmol Engler and/or other species of Commiphora.
Studies with its main characteristic constituents consisting of three groups of compounds the volatile oil, resin and gum are included.
The therapeutic indications are topical treatment of gingivitis, stomatitis (aphthous ulcers), minor skin inflammations, minor wounds and abrasions; supportive treatment for pharyngitis, tonsillitis.
Administration of myrrh addresses posology; its duration of use; contra-indications; special warnings; special precautions for use; interactions with other medicinal products; other forms of interaction; in pregnancy and lactation; its effects on ability to drive; undesirable effects; overdose.
In vitro experiments with myrrh indicate antibacterial, antifungal, antiproliferative and aromatase inhibiting properties.
In vivo experiments in animals demonstrate anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumour, cytotoxic, anthelmintic and hypoglycaemic activities.
Pharmacological studies in humans concern its anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities.
Open clinical studies with myrrh concern its anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities and demonstrated its use in patients with schistosomiasis or parasitic liver flukes.
Preclinical safety data for myrrh extracts were assessed in toxicity studies.
Safety data were assessed in human studies. Only mild and transient side effects were reported.
The selection of literature cited in the monograph is aimed at bringing together relevant information about the possible physiological roles of myrrh and its major constituents. Examples are given below.
- Commiphora molmol. Syn: Commiphora myrrha. Other species: Commiphora abyssinica, Commiphora schimperi.
- Gingivitis; Stomatitis (aphthous ulcers); Pharyngitis; Skin inflammations, minor; Wounds, abrasions, minor
EXAMPLE OF REFERENCES